Completing Sentence Rules - All in 1 - iT English

Completing Sentence Rules – All in 1

Completing Sentences Rules

That/so that/in order that

  1. Present Tense →that/so that/in order that → subject +can/may + V1 + object/ext.
  • Past Tense→ that/so that/in order that →subject + could/might + V1 + object/ext.

Example:

  1. We eat so that we can live.
  • We ate so that we could live.

As if/as though

  1. Present Tense→ as if / as though → subject + V2 + object. Or Subject + were + object
  • Past Tense→ as if/as though →subject + had + V3 + object. OR Subject + had been + object.

Example:

  1. She talks as if she knew everything.
  • She talks as if she were mad.
  • She spoke as if she had known everything.
  • She spoke as if she had been an actress.

Lest/In case (completing sentence rules)

Any Tense→ Lest→ subject + should/might + V1 + object. Example:

1. Walk fast lest you should miss the exam.

Though/Although

1st Clause (Cause)2nd Clause(Result)
Positive sentenceNegative sentence
Negative sentencePositive sentence

Example:

  1. Though she is poor, she is honest.
  • Though she knows English, she cannot speak in it.

No sooner had (completing sentence rules)

No sooner had + subject + V3 + object →than/before + subject + V2 + object.

Example:

1. No sooner had she reached the station than the train left.

Hardly had

Hardly had + subject + V3 + object→ before/when + subject + V2 + object.

Example:

1. Hardly had the teacher entered the classroom when the student kept quiet.

Scarcely had

Scarcely had + subject + V3 + object→ when + subject + V2 + object.

Example:

1. Scarcely had the teacher seen the student when she started studying. Barely had

Barely had+ subject + V3 + object→ when + subject + V2 + object.

Example:

1. Barely had Peter reached the place when Kim started arguing with him.

As Soon As

As soon as + subject + V2 + object→ comma (,) subject + V2 + object.

Example:

  1. As soon as Peter sat down, the phone rang.
  • As soon as the police marked the thief, he ran away.

Would you mind?

Would you mindV1 + ing + object?

Example:

1. Would you mind taking a cup of coffee?

Would you mind + If + somebody + V2 + object/ext?

Example:

1. Would you mind if you opened the door?

Completing Sentence Rules:

Would you mind + Somebody’s + Verb + ing + object/ext.

Completing Sentence Example

1. Would you mind Eva’s staying here with us?

Till/Until

  • Present Tense→ Till/Until→Present Tense.
  • →Till/Until→Past Tense. Example:
  • Just wait till she comes.
  • We waited until the bus came.

In spite of/Despite

In spite of/Despitesubject + verb + object
Positive sentenceNegative sentence
Negative sentencePositive sentence

In spite of/Despite + Noun Phrase+ clause (subject + verb + other words) Example:

  1. It is time/It is high time/It is now time→ subject + V2 + object.
  • It is time/It is high time/It is now time→ to + V1 + object.
  • It is time/It is high time/It is now time→for + personal object + to + verb (present form) + object/extension.

Example:

  1. It is time you worked for your future.
  • It is high time to work for your future.
  • It is time for us to attack the enemy.

Conditional Sentence (If)

First Conditional

If + subject + V1 + object→ subject + can/should/will/may + V1 + object. Example:

1. If you accompany me, I will go to the zoo.

Second Conditional

  1. If + subject + V2 + object→ subject + could/would/might + V1 + object.
  • If + subject + were + complement→ subject + could/would/might + V1 + object. (Unreal past)

Example:

  1. If I had the time, I would learn Spanish.
  • If I were king, I would help the poor.

Third Conditional

  1. If + subject + had + V3 + object→ subject + could have/should have/would have/might have + V3 + object.
  • Had + subject + V3 + object→ subject + could have/should have/would have/might have + V3 + object.

Example:

  1. If I had seen him I would have given him the message.
  • Had he invited me I should have joined the party.

Zero Conditional

If + subject + V1 + object→ subject + V1 + object. Example:

1. If you heat water 100 degrees Celsius, it boils.

Since

  1. Present indefinite → since→ Past indefinite.
  • Present perfect→ since→ Past indefinite. Example:
  1. It is ten years since my brother was born.
  • Ten years have passed since his friend met him first.

So….that

  1. Subject + verb (present Tense) + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + can/may/shall/will+ not + V1 + object/extra part.
  • Subject + verb (past Tense) + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + could/would/might+ not + V1 + object/extra part.
  • Subject + verb + so + adjective/adverb + that + subject + verb (present/past form) + object/extra part.

Example:

  1. The woman is so weak that she cannot move his body.
  • Peter was so wicked that nobody could trust him.
  • My father was so honest that all respected him.

Would rather

Subject + would rather + V1→ than + verb/noun.

Example: He would rather die than forgive you.

Without + gerund

Without + V1 +ing + object personal + subject + verb + necessary part.

Example:

1. Without working hard you cannot achieve success.

By + gerund

By + V1+ ing + object +personal subject + verb +necessary part.

Example: By completing the work I shall go home.

Unless

  1. Unless+ clause (present Tense) incomplete sentence →subject + can/may/shall/will + V1 + object/extension.
  • Unless+ clause (past Tense) incomplete sentence →subject + could/would/might + V1 + object/extension.

Example:

  1. Unless you work hard you will fail in life.
  • Unless he failed, he might get a job.

Not only…. but also

  1. Subject + Verb + not only + Noun →but also + Noun

Example: She likes not only ice cream but also yoghurt.

  • Subject + not only + Verb →but also + Verb

Example: Peter not only studies hard but also plays hard.

  • Subject + Verb + not only + Adjective →but also + Adjective

Example: She is not only kind but also pity.

  • Subject + Verb + not only + Adverb →but also + Adverb

Example: Eva speaks Spanish not only naturally but also fluently.

As long as/ So long as

As long as+ incomplete sentence→subordinate clause (Affirmative/Negative)/meaningful sentence.

Completing Sentence Example:

1. God will be with us so long as our aim is honest.

Instead of / In lieu of

Instead of / In lieu of + Noun/Gerund Phrase + Clause (subject + verb + other words)

Example: Instead of / In lieu of history he took logic.

Because of/on account of/owing to/due to

 Because of/on account of/owing to/ due to Phrase + incomplete sentence → Clause (subject + verb + other words)/meaningful complete sentence.

Example: I could not help him due to my poverty.

Too…..to/Enough       to

Too … to + sentence personal/same subject.

Subject + verb + too + adjective→to + V1 + object/ext.

Example:

1. She is too weak to walk.

Relative pronoun

Subject+ who/which/what/that etc. + verb + object→verb +object.

Subject+ verb + object→ that/who/which/what etc. →verb +object.

That/Wh-word+ subject+ verb+ object→ verb Object.

Example:

  1. Eva who is a little girl is my student.
  • I know a woman who is a doctor.

Let alone

Let alone +incomplete sentence → (meaningful word or phrase). Example: He cannot pass in the third division, let alone the first division.

Provided/provided that/providing that/whether /in case

…provided/provided that/providing that→ (meaningful sentence).

Examples:

1. She will shine in life provided that he works hard.

So much/ so many

So much/ so many +incomplete sentence→ that + 1st subject + can/cannot + verb + necessary part.

Completing Sentence Example:

  1. You have so much intelligence that you can get a job.
  • There are so many problems that I cannot solve them.

Completing sentence rules:
…the place + where→ (meaningful affirmative sentence).

Examples: London is the place where she was born.

…the time/year/day + when → (meaningful affirmative sentence).

Examples: Saturday is the day when the week begins.

By the time

  1. Main clause + by the time + Dependent clause.
  • By the time + Dependent clause + Main clause.

Example:

  1. I will be in bed by the time you get home.
  2. By the time that the guards realised what was happening, the gang were already inside the bank.

In the event

Results clause + in the event + Reason clause

Example: I got very nervous about the exam in the event that it might be very difficult.

Now that

  1. Now that + cause clause + Effect clause
  • Effect clause + now that + cause clause

Example:

  1. Now that John is married, he has become much more responsible.
  2. I can enjoy myself now that the exams are over.

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